Násilí v husitských Čechách mezi lety 1418-1422

Title: Násilí v husitských Čechách mezi lety 1418-1422
Variant title:
  • Violence in Hussite Bohemia between 1418-1422
Author: Rokyta, Jan
Source document: Religio. 2022, vol. 30, iss. 2, pp. [135]-156
  • ISSN
    1210-3640 (print)
    2336-4475 (online)
Type: Article

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The study dealt with the issue of legitimizing violence in Bohemia in the 15th century. The relationship to violence is based on four reference levels. They differ both in the form of legitimating and in the relation to the reform of the Church. The tradition of setting norms of violence in Bohemia has its roots in the pre-Hussite period. In contrast to the usual form of the tradition, it contains an element of patriotism and the defence of the truth and the Church. There is also an attitude of rejecting violence, connected with the person of Chelčický. The frame of reference is firstly formed by the conviction of the necessity of a total rectification of the Church. In the Hussites' understanding, the reform movement in Bohemia has not only a local impact but is also part of God's wider plan. It understands itself as a universal concept, first realized in the territory of Bohemia. Another reference framework is the reaction to the Crusade against Bohemia. The Crusade, the relationship to the Hussites in the then world, and the feeling of a common enemy evoke the optics of persecution and even paranoid perception of the world. The third frame of reference is chiliastic thinking, later abandoned by the Taborites. The dynamics of eschatological rhetoric and seeing the enemy in diabolical categories as the enemy of the reform effort are intertwined here. Another form of a reference framework of violence relates to biblical figures and categories. There is also a change in the perception of the figure of Christ that becomes the frame of reference for violence. The fourth level of the reference framework of violence in 15th-century Bohemia involves self-understanding in terms of individuals and their motivation for violence.