Direct and free direct forms of representation in the discourse of newspaper reports: less frequent phenomena

Název: Direct and free direct forms of representation in the discourse of newspaper reports: less frequent phenomena
Zdrojový dokument: Brno studies in English. 2012, roč. 38, č. 1, s. 39-[54]
  • ISSN
    0524-6881 (print)
    1805-0867 (online)
Type: Článek
Licence: Neurčená licence
This paper comments on selected aspects of free direct and direct forms of representation occurring in a corpus of British newspaper reports and describes them from a number of perspectives. A few comments are made on the corpus studied, speech, writing and thought distinction and the frequency of occurrence of the individual forms on each scale. Since the use of reported language in newspaper reports has been studied thoroughly from a number of angles, the present paper turns attention to phenomena that occur less frequently but nevertheless are worth examining. The aspects focused on are embedded direct and free direct reports, direct thought reports and hypothetical (free) direct reports. These phenomena are interpreted in terms of the overall function of reported language in newspaper reports and the connection between them is discussed.
[1] Bakhtin, Mikhail M. (1986) Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.

[2] Banfield, Ann (1973) 'Narrative style and the grammar of direct and indirect speech'. Foundations of Language: International Journal of Language and Philosophy 10, 1−39.

[3] Bell, Allan (1991) The Language of News Media. Oxford: Blackwell.

[4] Caldas-Coulthard, Carmen R. (1994) 'On reporting reporting: the representation of speech in factual and factional narratives'. In: Coulthard, Malcolm (ed.) Advances in Written Text Analysis. London: Routledge, 295−308.

[5] Clark, Herbert H. and Richard J. Gerrig (1990) 'Quotations as Demonstrations'. Language 66(4), 767−805.

[6] Ehrlich, Susan (1990) Point of View: A Linguistic Analysis of Literary Style. London: Routledge.

[7] Fludernik, Monika (1993) The Fictions of Language and the Language of Fiction. London: Routledge.

[8] Goffman, Erving (1981) Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

[9] Ikeo, Reiko (2009) 'An elaboration of the faithfulness claims in direct writing'. Journal of Pragmatics 41, 999−1016. | DOI 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.11.006

[10] Leech, Geoffrey N. and Michael Short (1981) Style in Fiction. London: Longman.

[11] Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech and Jan Svartvik (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.

[12] Ryan, Marie-Laure (1991) Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence, and Narrative Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

[13] Semino, Elena, Mick Short and Jonathan Culpeper (1997) 'Using a corpus to test a model of speech and thought presentation'. Poetics 25, 17−43. | DOI 10.1016/S0304-422X(97)00007-7

[14] Semino, Elena, Mick Short and Martin Wynne (1999) 'Hypothetical Words and Thoughts in Contemporary British Narratives'. Narrative 7(3), 307−334.

[15] Semino Elena and Mick Short (2004) Corpus Stylistics: Speech, Writing and Thought Presentation in a Corpus of English Writing. London: Routledge.

[16] Short, Michael (1988) 'Speech presentation, the novel and the press.' In: Van Peer, Willie (ed.) The Taming of the Text. London: Routledge, 61−81.

[17] Short Mick, Martin Wynne and Elena Semino (1998) 'Reading Reports: Discourse Presentation in a Corpus of Narratives, with Special Reference to News Reports'. Anglistik and Englischunterricht, 39−65.

[18] Short Mick, Elena Semino and Martin Wynne (2002) 'Revisiting the notion of faithfulness in discourse presentation using a corpus approach'. Language and Literature 11(4), 325−355.

[19] Sternberg, Meir (1982) 'Point of View and the Indirections of Direct Speech'. Language and Style 15(1), 67−117.

[20] Tannen, Deborah (1986) 'Introducing constructed dialogue in Greek and American Conversation and Literary Narrative'. In: Coulmas, Florian (ed.) Direct and Indirect Speech. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 311−331.

[21] Tannen, Deborah (2007) Talking Voices: Repetition, Dialogue, and Imaginary in Conversational Discourse. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[22] Vandelanotte, Lieven (2009) Speech and Thought Representation in English. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

[23] van Dijk, Teun A. (1988) News as Discourse. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

[24] Waugh, Linda R. (1995) 'Reported speech in journalistic discourse'. Text 15, 129–173.

[25] 'Blair brought military close to seizing up, says ex-army chief'. The Guardian, 29 July 2010.

[26] 'Cameron: I didn't think I would become a Prime Minister'. The Independent, 29 July 2010.

[27] 'Cameron: we must back doers and grafters who will get economy moving'. The Daily Telegraph, October 6, 2010.

[28] 'Channel 4 defends its kidnap drama fiction about Prince Harry'. The Guardian, October 7, 2010.

[29] 'Child benefit: I should have warned you, admits MP'. The Daily Telegraph, October 6, 2010.

[30] 'Cuts won't be easy but there is no alternative, says PM'. The Guardian, October 7, 2010.

[31] 'Man joked about parasail before falling to his death'. The Independent, 29 July 2010.

[32] 'No dramas, but assured speech steadies party'. The Independent, October 7, 2010.

[33] 'Pupils will learn our island story, promises Schama'. The Daily Telegraph, October 6, 2010.

[34] 'R.E.S.P.E.C.T. Find out what it means to Condi'. The Independent, 29 July 2010.

[35] 'You'll never worry alone: fans in nervous wait to learn who will own Liverpool FC'. The Guardian, 29 July 2010.