"Nezůstane kámen na kameni" : pád Jeruzaléma v Markově evangeliu

Název: "Nezůstane kámen na kameni" : pád Jeruzaléma v Markově evangeliu
Variantní název:
  • "There will not be left one stone upon another" : the fall of Jerusalem in the Gospel of Mark
Zdrojový dokument: Religio. 2010, roč. 18, č. 2, s. [127]-162
  • ISSN
    1210-3640 (print)
    2336-4475 (online)
Type: Článek
Licence: Neurčená licence

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The fall of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. was referred to in the synoptic gospels. It is thus reasonable to assume that this event influenced the formation of the gospel myth, primarily of the passion story, its setting to Jerusalem, and the early Christian conception of the oldest church history anchored in the primordial Jerusalem church. In this connection, the so-called Small Apocalypse in Mark 13:1-37 represents a text of pivotal importance. While its final redaction within the Gospel of Mark is dated shortly after the fall of Jerusalem, as the introductory prediction of the temple destruction indicates (Mk 13:1-2), the inner structure of this passage shows tensions between redaction and older traditions, between the past and the present, between history and fluid apocalyptic visions. Therefore, the analysis of the Small Apocalypse is primarily focused on the historical identifications of apocalyptic figures which appear in it and originate mostly in the Book of Daniel. These were undergoing gradual transformations and were actualized in different historical contexts, usually those involving fatal threats to the Jerusalem temple (Antiochus, Caligula, Titus). Temple symbolizations, finally integrated into the structure of the Small Apocalypse, are coordinated by Jonathan Z. Smith's dichotomy of locative and utopian aspects of religion, which shows a strong contrast between locative attachments to the Jerusalem temple, typical for the Zealots as well as for the priestly aristocracy, and the strictly utopian program of the Gospel of Mark. In contrast to the demolished Jerusalem temple, Mark brings forward the resurrected Jesus. In this sense, Jesus' prediction of the temple destruction (Mk 13:1-2) represents a keystone of the whole passion story (Mk 13-15), which contrasts the destruction of the Jerusalem temple to Jesus' death and resurrection (cf. Mk 14:58 and 16:6).
Tato studie vznikla v rámci projektu "Jeruzalémská církev a její role v sociálním utváření raného křesťanství", podporovaného Grantovou agenturou České republiky (č. grantu 401/09/1111).