"I honour those who reverence my power" : Gods, humans, and the breaking of social and religious rules in Euripides' Hippolytus

Název: "I honour those who reverence my power" : Gods, humans, and the breaking of social and religious rules in Euripides' Hippolytus
Autor: Bär, Silvio
Zdrojový dokument: Graeco-Latina Brunensia. 2020, roč. 25, č. 2, s. 17-32
  • ISSN
    1803-7402 (print)
    2336-4424 (online)
Type: Článek
It is argued in this article that the gods in Euripides' tragedy Hippolytus are equally concerned with testing and breaking their rules of conduct and behaviour as the humans are. The gods in the Hippolytus are repeatedly confronted with conflicting divine norms and laws which are essential for the dramatic progress, yet these lead to various inter-divine conflicts. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the divine descent of Hippolytus adds to the complexity of his character, a character who stands between the world of the humans and the gods.
[1] Allan, W. (2006). Divine Justice and Cosmic Order in Early Greek Epic. Journal of Hellenic Studies, 126, 1–35. | DOI 10.1017/S0075426900007631

[2] Barrett, W. S. (Ed.). (1964). Euripides: Hippolytos. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[3] Blok, J. H. (1995). The Early Amazons: Modern and Ancient Perspectives on a Persistent Myth. Leiden: Brill.

[4] Brill. Dict. = Montanari, F. (Ed.). (2015). The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek. Leiden: Brill.

[5] Brillante, C. (2006§). Fedra e l'aidos nell'Ippolito di Euripide. Dioniso, 5, 36–53.

[6] Burkert, W. (1979). Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[7] Cairns, D. L. (1993). Aidōs: The Psychology and Ethics of Honour and Shame in Ancient Greek Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[8] Cavarzeran, J. (Ed.). (2016). Scholia in Euripidis Hippolytum. Berlin: De Gruyter.

[9] Conacher, D. J. (1967). Euripidean Drama: Myth, Theme and Structure. London: University of Toronto Press.

[10] Danek, G. (1992). Zur Prologrede der Aphrodite im Hippolytos des Euripides. Wiener Studien, 105, 19–37.

[11] Dowden, K. (1997). The Amazons: Development and Function. Rheinisches Museum, 140, 97–128.

[12] Dräger, P. (Ed. & Transl.). (2005). Apollodor: Bibliotheke. Götter- und Heldensagen. Düsseldorf – Zürich: Artemis & Winkler.

[13] Du Sablon, V. (2014). Le système conceptuel de l'ordre du monde dans la pensée grecque à l'époque archaïque: Τιμή, μοῖρα, κόσμος, θέμις et δίκη chez Homère et Hésiode. Louvain: Éditions Peeters.

[14] Erbse, H. (1984). Studien zum Prolog der euripideischen Tragödie. Berlin: De Gruyter.

[15] Erbse, H. (1986). Untersuchungen zur Funktion der Götter im homerischen Epos. Berlin: De Gruyter.

[16] Gantz, T. (1993). Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

[17] Gay, D. (2000). Labeling Theory: The New Perspective. The Corinthian: The Journal of Student Research at GC&SU, 2, 1–18.

[18] Gierke, D. (2017). Eheprobleme im griechischen Drama: Eine Studie zum Diskurs von Oikos und Polis im Athen des 5. Jahrhunderts vor Christus. Munich: Herbert Utz.

[19] Goff, B. E. (1990). The noose of words: Readings of desire, violence and language in Euripides' Hippolytos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[20] Gottschalk, P. (2015). Internal Investigations of Economic Crime: Corporate Case Studies and Regulatory Policy. Boca Raton: Universal-Publisher.

[21] Graziosi, B., & Haubold, J. (2005). Homer: The Resonance of Epic. London: Duckworth.

[22] Gregory, J. (2009). A Father's Curse in Euripides' Hippolytus. In J. R. C. Cousland, & J. R. Hume (Eds.), The Play of Texts and Fragments: Essays in Honour of Martin Cropp (pp. 35–48). Leiden: Brill.

[23] Griffin, J. (1990). Characterization in Euripides: Hippolytus and Iphigeneia in Aulis. In C. Pelling (Ed.), Characterization and Individuality in Greek Literature (pp. 128–149). Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[24] Halleran, M. R. (Ed. & Transl.). (1995). Euripides: Hippolytus. Warminster: Aris & Philips.

[25] Holzhausen, J. (1995). Eros und Aidos in Phaidras Monolog: Euripides Hippolytos 373–430. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

[26] Holzhausen, J. (2003). Nochmals zur Aidos in Phaidras Monolog. Rheinisches Museum, 146, 244–258.

[27] Humphreys, S. C. (1994). Le mariage entre parents dans l'Athènes classique. In P. Bonte (Ed.), Épouser au plus proche: Inceste, prohibitions et stratégies matrimoniales autour de la Méditerranée (pp. 31–58). Paris: Éditions Hachette.

[28] Jeny, H. (1989). Troizen as the Setting of Hippolytos Stephanephoros. American Journal of Philology, 110, 400–404. | DOI 10.2307/295216

[29] Karabélias, E. (1989). Inceste, mariage et stratégies matrimoniales dans l'Athènes classique. In G. Thür (Ed.), Symposion 1985: Vorträge zur griechischen und hellenistischen Rechtsgeschichte (pp. 233–251). Cologne: Böhlau.

[30] Kelly, A. (2007). A Referential Commentary and Lexicon to Iliad VIII. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[31] Klügmann, A. (1875). Die Amazonen in der attischen Literatur und Kunst: Eine archäologische Abhandlung. Stuttgart: W. Spemann.

[32] Kohn, T. D. (2008). The Wishes of Theseus. Transactions of the American Philological Association, 138, 379–392. | DOI 10.1353/apa.0.0010

[33] Köhnken, A. (1972). Götterrahmen und Menschliches Handeln in Euripides' Hippolytos. Hermes, 100, 179–190.

[34] Köhnken, A. (1980). Shame, Pleasure, and Honor in Phaedra's Great Speech (Euripides, Hippolytus 375–387). American Journal of Philology, 101, 287–303. | DOI 10.2307/294268

[35] Κovacs, D. (1980). Euripides Hippolytus 100 and the Meaning of the Prologue. Classical Philology, 75, 130–137. | DOI 10.1086/366550

[36] Κovacs, D. (1987). The Heroic Muse: Studies in the Hippolytus and Hecuba of Euripides. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

[37] Κovacs, D. (Ed. & Transl.). (1995). Euripides: Children of Heracles, Hippolytus, Andromache, Hecuba. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[38] Κovacs, D. (Ed. & Transl.). (1999). Euripides: Trojan Women, Iphigenia among the Taurians, Ion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[39] Kullmann, W. (1987). Deutung und Bedeutung der Götter bei Euripides. In S. Posch, E. Thummer, & K. Töchterle (Eds.), Mythos: Deutung und Bedeutung (pp. 7–22). Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck.

[40] Lawall, G., & Lawall, S. (Transl.). (1986). Euripides: Hippolytus. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press.

[41] Lefkowitz, M. (2016). Euripides and the Gods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[42] Lesky, A. (1971). Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (3rd ed.). Bern: Francke.

[43] Luschnig, C. A. E. (1988). Time Holds the Mirror: A Study of Knowledge in Euripides' Hippolytus. Leiden: Brill.

[44] MacDowell, D. M. (1978). The Law in Classical Athens. London: Thames and Hudson.

[45] Manuwald, B. (1978). Phaidras tragischer Irrtum: Zur Rede Phaidras in Euripides' Hippolytos (vv. 373–430). Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, 122, 134–148.

[46] Manuwald, B. (2000). Phaidras nächtliche Überlegungen. Euripides, Hippolytos 373–390. In E. Stärk, & G. Vogt-Spira (Eds.), Dramatische Wäldchen: Festschrift für Eckard Lefèvre zum 65. Geburtstag (pp. 59–79). Hildesheim: Georg Olms.

[47] Mastronarde, D. J. (2010). The Art of Euripides: Dramatic Technique and Social Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[48] Matthiessen, K. (2002). Die Tragödien des Euripides. Munich: C. H. Beck.

[49] Matthiessen, K. (2004). Euripides und sein Jahrhundert. Munich: C. H. Beck.

[50] Mikalson, J. D. (1991). Honor Thy Gods: Popular Religion in Greek Tragedy. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

[51] Nikolsky, B. (2015). Misery and Forgiveness in Euripides: Meaning and Structure in Hippolytus. Swansea: The Classical Press of Wales.

[52] Olson, S. D. (Ed. & Transl.). (2012). The Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite and Related Texts. Berlin: De Gruyter.

[53] Papamichael, E. M. (1993). Hippolytos as a Cult Hero. Dodone, 22, 117–122.

[54] Parker, R. (1983). Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[55] Petrovic, A., & Petrovic, I. (2016). Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion: Early Greek Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[56] Pötscher, W. (1960). Moira, Themis und τιμή im homerischen Denken. Wiener Studien, 73, 5–39.

[57] Pulleyn, S. (2008). Prayer in Greek Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[58] Roth, P. (Ed. & Transl.). (2015). Euripides: Hippolytos. Berlin: De Gruyter.

[59] Segal, Ch. (1970). Shame and Purity in Euripides' Hippolytus. Hermes, 98, 278–299.

[60] Slatkin, L. M. (1986). The Wrath of Thetis. Transactions of the American Philological Association, 116, 1–24. | DOI 10.2307/283907

[61] Sommerstein, A. H. (Ed. & Transl.). (2008). Aeschylus. Oresteia: Agamemnon, Libation-Bearers, Eumenides. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[62] Spira, A. (1960). Untersuchungen zum Deus ex machina bei Sophokles und Euripides. Kallmünz: Max Laßleben.

[63] Steiner, D. T. (2001). Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

[64] Stockert, W. (Ed.). (1994). Euripides: Hippolytus. Stuttgart: Teubner.

[65] Thompson, W. E. (1967). The Marriage of First Cousins in Athenian Society. Phoenix, 21, 273–282. | DOI 10.2307/1086216

[66] Toepffer, J. (1894). Amazones. I. Mythologisch. Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1, 1754–1771.

[67] Torrance, I. C. (2014). The oaths of the gods. In Idem, & A. H. Sommerstein (Eds.), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece (pp. 195–212). Berlin: De Gruyter.

[68] Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, U. von (Ed. & Transl.). (1891). Euripides: Hippolytos. Berlin: Weidmann.

[69] Webster, T. B. L. (1967). The Tragedies of Euripides. London: Methuen.

[70] Wernicke, K. (1894). Antiope. Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1, 2495–2500.

[71] Wildberg, C. (2002). Hyperesie und Epiphanie: Ein Versuch über die Bedeutung der Götter in den Dramen des Euripides. Munich: C. H. Beck.

[72] Zeitlin, F. I. (1985). The Power of Aphrodite: Eros and the Boundaries of the Self in the Hippolytus. In P. Burian (Ed.), Directions in Euripidean Criticism: A Collection of Essays (pp. 52–111). Durham: Duke University Press.