The idea of the circular motion of time in the thought of the Greeks of the 8th century B.C.

Název: The idea of the circular motion of time in the thought of the Greeks of the 8th century B.C.
Zdrojový dokument: Graeco-Latina Brunensia. 2023, roč. 28, č. 1, s. 75-94
  • ISSN
    1803-7402 (print)
    2336-4424 (online)
Type: Článek

Upozornění: Tyto citace jsou generovány automaticky. Nemusí být zcela správně podle citačních pravidel.

The aim of this paper is to reveal the specifics of a perception of calendar time among the Greeks of the 8th century B.C. Through an analysis of iconographic sources and original texts, we have made an attempt to determine the peculiarities in their perception of the flow of time, changing of the seasons, and annual circulation of time. By studying the imagery as it is shown in the pottery decoration of the Protogeometric and Geometric periods, we have come to the conclusion that the symbols depicted in it were reflected in the representations about calendar time as connected to the natural environment and alteration in the surrounding space in accordance with the annual changes in nature.
[1] Altmann, P. (2019). Birds in Surrounding Cultures. In I. Finkelstein, & D. Fulton (Eds.), Banned Birds: The Birds of Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14 (pp. 53–76). Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

[2] Bachelard, G. (1961). La poétique de l'espace. Paris: Boulevard Saint-Germain.

[3] Baldwin, A. (1915). Symbolism on Greek Coins. American Journal of Numismatics, 49, 89–194.

[4] Bartolotta, A. (2018). Spatio-Temporal Deixis and Cognitive Models in Early Indo-European. Cognitive Linguistics, 29(1), 1–44.

[5] Beekes, R. (2010). Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Vol. 1). Boston: Brill.

[6] Bouzek, J. (1993). The Early Greek Religion and the Coming of the Age of Iron. Religio, 1(2), 105–124.

[7] Bouzek, J. (2018). Studies on Homeric Greece. Prague: Carolinum Press.

[8] Brockliss, W. (2019). Homeric imagery and the natural environment. Washington: Center for Hellenic Studies [online available at; accessed 22.04.2023].

[9] Brown, A. S. (1998). From the Golden Age to the Isles of the Blest. Mnemosyne, 51(4), 385–410.

[10] Burkert, W. (1985). Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

[11] Burkert, W. (2004). Epiphanies and Signs of Power: Minoan Suggestions and Comparative Evidence. Illinois Classical Studies, 29, 1–23.

[12] Butterworth, E. A. S. (1970). The Tree at the Navel of the Earth. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

[13] Caillois, R. (2015). L'homme et le sacré. Paris: Gallimard.

[14] Calame, C. (2009). Poetic and Performative Memory in Ancient Greece: Heroic Reference and Ritual Gestures in Time and Space. Washington: Center for Hellenic Studies.

[15] Carruesco, J. (2016). Choral Performance and Geometric Patterns in Epic Poetry and Iconographic Representations. In V. Cazzato, & A. Lardinois (Eds.), The Look of Lyric: Greek Song and the Visual: Studies in Archaic and Classical Greek Song (Vol. 1; pp. 69–107). Boston: Brill.

[16] Cassirer, E. (2010). Philosophie der symbolischen Formen, 2: Das mythische Denken. Hamburg: Meiner.

[17] Celotto, G. (2017). Ἐνιαυτός in Hesiod "Theogony" 58: One-Year Pregnancy in Archaic Greek Poetry. Hermes, 145(2), 224–234.

[18] Chapin, A. P. (1997). A Re-Examination of the Floral Fresco from the Unexplored Mansion at Knossos. The Annual of the British School at Athens, 92, 1–24.

[19] Coleman, J. E. (1985). "Frying Pans" of the Early Bronze Age Aegean. American Journal of Archaeology, 89(2), 191–219.

[20] Crouwel, J. H., & Morris, C. E. (1995). Pictorial Pottery of Late Minoan II–III A2 Early from Knossos. The Annual of the British School at Athens, 90, 157–182.

[21] Currie, B. (2012). Hesiod on Human History. In J. Marincola, L. Llewellyn-Jones, & C. Maciver (Eds.), Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History without Historians (pp. 37–64). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

[22] Day, J. (2011). Crocuses in Context: A Diachronic Survey of the Crocus Motif in the Aegean Bronze Age. Hesperia, 80(3), 337–379.

[23] De Jong, J. F. (2007). Homer. In Idem, & R. Nünlist (Eds.), Time in Ancient Greek Literature: Studies in Ancient Greek Narrative (Vol. 2; pp. 17–38). Boston: Brill.

[24] Dexter, M. R. (2010). The Ferocious and the Erotic: "Beautiful" Medusa and the Neolithic Bird and Snake. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 26(1), 25–41.

[25] Dietrich, B. C. (1997). Death and Afterlife in Minoan Religion. Kernos, 10, 19–38.

[26] Durkheim, E., & Mauss, M. (2009). Primitive Classification. London: Routledge.

[27] Eliade, M. (1961). Images and Symbols: Studies in Religion Symbolism. New York: Harvill Press.

[28] Eliade, M. (1987). The Sacred and Profane: The Nature of Religion. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

[29] Fagles, R. (Transl.). (1996). Homer: The Odyssey. London: Viking.

[30] Falkner, I. (1989). Slouching towards Boeotia: Age and Age Grading in the Hesiodic Myth of the Five Races. Classical Antiquity, 8(1), 42–60.

[31] Foley, H. P. (1993). The Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Translation, Commentary and Interpretive Essays. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

[32] Gates, Ch. (2011). Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. New York: Routledge.

[33] Gelling, P., & Davidson, H. E. (1969). The Chariot of the Sun and Other Rites and Symbols of the Northern Bronze Age. Washington: Frederick A. Praeger.

[34] Giannakis, G. K. (2019). The East/West and Right/Left Dualism and the Rise of Some Taboos in Ancient Greek Language and Culture. In G. K. Giannakis, & C. Charalambakis (Eds.), Studies in Greek Lexicography (pp. 233–262). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

[35] Goodison, L. (1989). Death, Women and the Sun: Symbolism of Regeneration in Early Aegean Religion. Bulletin Supplement (University of London. Institute of Classical Studies), 53, 1–251.

[36] Goodison, L. (2009). "Why All This about Oak or Stone?": Trees and Boulders in Minoan Religion. Hesperia, 41, 51–57.

[37] Hardie, P. R. (1985). Imago Mundi: Cosmological and Ideological Aspects of the Shield of Achilles. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 105, 11–31.

[38] Heidegger, M. (1967). Sein und Zeit. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

[39] Hertz, R. (2004). Death and the Right Hand. London: Routledge.

[40] Hubbard, T. K. (1992). Nature and Art in the Shield of Achilles. Arion, 2(1), 16–41.

[41] Hurwitt, J. M. (2006). Lizards, Lions, and the Uncanny in Early Greek Art. Hesperia, 75(1), 121–136.

[42] Husserl, E. (1973). Ding und Raum: Vorlesungen 1907. Haag: Martinus Nijhoff.

[43] James, E. O. (1966). The Tree of Life. Leiden: Brill.

[44] Jordan, H. (Transl.). (2008). Homer: the Iliad. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

[45] Kaul, F. (2005). Bronze Age Tripartite Cosmologies. Praehistorische Zeitschrift, 80(2), 135–148.

[46] Keller, M. L. (1988). The Eleusinian Mysteries of Demeter and Persephone: Fertility, Sexuality, and Rebirth. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion, 4(1), 27–54.

[47] Lambert, W. G. (1985). Trees, Snakes and Gods in Ancient Syria and Anatolia. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 48(3), 435–451.

[48] Larson, J. (2007). Ancient Greek Cults. New York: Routledge.

[49] Lawler, L. B. (1944). The Lily in the Dance. The American Journal of Philology, 65(1), 75–80.

[50] Lincoln, B. (1986). Myth, Cosmos, and Society: Indo-European Themes of Creation and Destruction. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

[51] Marinatos, N. (1993). Minoan Religion: Ritual, Image, and Symbol. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

[52] Marinatos, N. (2004). The Character of Minoan Epiphanies. Illinois Classical Studies, 29, 25–42.

[53] Molloy, B. (2018). European Bronze Age Symbols in Prehistoric Greece? Reconsidering Bronze Shields and Spears from Delphi in Their Wider Context. Hesperia, 87(2), 279–309.

[54] Morgan, L. (1987). A Minoan Larnax from Knossos. The Annual of the British School at Athens, 82, 171–200.

[55] Most, G. W. (1997). Hesiod's Myth of the Five (or Three or Four) Races. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society, 43, 104–127.

[56] Most, G. W. (Ed. & Transl.). (2006). Hesiod: Theogony (Loeb classical library, 57). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

[57] Mundkur, B. (1978). Notes on Two Ancient Fertility Symbols. East and West, 28(1/4), 263–282.

[58] Murray, A. T. (Transl.). (1924). Homer: The Iliad (Loeb classical library). London: Heinemann.

[59] Nilsson, M. P. (1949). A history of Greek religion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

[60] Philippson, P. (1949). Concetto Greco di Tempo nelle Parole Aion, Chronos, Kairos, Eniautos. Rivista di Storia della Filosofia (1946–1949), 4(2), 81–97.

[61] Purves, A. C. (2006). Falling into time in Homer's Iliad. Classical Antiquity, 25(1), 179–209.

[62] Purves, A. C. (2010). Wind and Time in Homeric Epic. Transactions of the American Philological Association (1974–2014), 140(2), 323–350.

[63] Querbach, C. W. (1985). Hesiod's Myth of the Four Races. The Classical Journal, 81(1), 1–12.

[64] Rehak, P. (2004). Crocus Costumes in Aegean Art. Hesperia, 33, 85–100.

[65] Roblee, M. (2018). Performing Circles in Ancient Egypt from Mehen to Ouroboros. Preternature, 7(2), 133–153.

[66] Salapata, J. (2006). The Tippling Serpent in the Art of Laconia and Beyond. Hesperia, 75(4), 541– 560.

[67] Shaw, M. C. (1993). The Aegean Garden. American Journal of Archaeology, 97(4), 661–685.

[68] Smith, P. (1980). History and the Individual in Hesiod's Myth of Five Races. The Classical World, 74(3), 145–163.

[69] Van de Velde, H. (2003). Manuscript on Ornament. Journal of Design History, 16(2), 139–166.

[70] Van Hoek, M. A. M. (1993). The Spiral in British and Irish Neolithic Rock Art. Glasgow Archaeological Journal, 18, 11–32.

[71] Vermeule, E. T. (1965). The Vengeance of Achilles. Bulletin of the Museum of Fine Arts, 63(331), 34–52.

[72] Vermeule, E. T. (1981). Aspects of Death in Early Greek Art and Poetry. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[73] Vlachou, V. (2012). Figured Pottery from Oropos and Zagora. Mediterranean Archaeology, 25, 137–151.

[74] Watrous, L. V. (1991). The Origin and Iconography of the Late Minoan Painted Larnax. Hesperia, 60(3), 285–307.

[75] Whitrow, G. J. (1961). The Natural Philosophy of Time. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd.

[76] Zanker, A. T. (2013). Decline and Parainesis in Hesiod's Race of Iron. Rheinisches Museum für Philologie, 156(1), 1–19.

[77] Zanker, A. T. (2019). Metaphor in Homer: Time, Speech, and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.